Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1988, 53, 2963-2985

Enzymes in preparative organic synthesis: The problem of increasing the yield of product

Anatolii N. Semenova, Václav Čeřovskýb, Mikhail I. Titova and Karel Martinekb

a Institute of Experimental Cardiology, U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, 121552 Moscow, U.S.S.R.
b Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 166 10 Prague 6, Czechoslovakia


Approaches and methods increasing yield of the desired products in enzymatically catalyzed thermodynamically unfavourable syntheses are reviewed. Attention is paid especially to reactions in biphasic systems (water-water-immiscible organic solvent) and their modifications (micellar systems, pseudo-biphasic systems, aqueous biphasic systems, etc.). The dependence of chemical equilibrium and conversion of enzymatically catalyzed processes on the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases and on the partition coefficients is described. Enzymatically catalyzed syntheses of peptides, amides, esters, NAD-dependent oxidations of hydroxy groups, etc. are given as examples. Various approaches to enzymatically catalyzed processes and their prospects are discussed.