Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 2009, 74, 1777-1789
Published online 2010-02-04 21:27:37

Some applications of polarography for investigation of equlibria in aqueous solutions of organic compounds

Petr Zuman

Department of Chemistry, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810, USA


There are two possibilities how to follow equilibria of organic compounds established in aqueous solutions using polarography: for very fast reactions, information can be obtained from shifts of half-wave potentials. For slowly established equilibria, the changes in the limiting current are followed. In both cases variation of the half-wave potentials or limiting currents with concentration of a reactant, present in excess, is followed. The types of reactions, which had been followed in this way, are as follows: hydration–dehydration equilibria, additions of hydroxide ion to carbonyl and nitroso compounds, the role of slowly established acid–base equilibria involving C-acids; further also reactions involving the addition of ammonia, primary amines, hydroxylamine, and hydrazine to carbonyl compounds.

Keywords: Electroreductions; Electrooxidations; Polarography; Electroactivity; Structure; Organics.

References: 62 live references.