Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 2009, 74, 1647-1664
Published online 2010-02-02 09:56:50

Host–Guest interaction of pesticide bifenox with cyclodextrin molecules. An electrochemical study

Magdaléna Hromadováa,*, Romana Sokolováa, Lubomír Pospíšila,*, Štěpánka Lachmanováa, Nicolangelo Fanellib and Stefania Giannarellic

a J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8, Czech Republic
b Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, via Moruzzi 1, 561 24 Pisa, Italy
c Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita degli Studi, via Risorgimento 35, 561 26 Pisa, Italy


The reduction of nitroaromatic compound bifenox (methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate) was studied in aprotic solvents in the absence or presence of cyclodextrin (CD) molecules of different cavity sizes. βCD and γCD form complexes with bifenox in DMSO with the complex formation constants (5 ± 2) × 102 M–1 [βCD–bifenox] and (3 ± 1) × 102 M–1 [γCD–bifenox], respectively. Bifenox yields a relatively stable anion radical in dimethyl sulfoxide, which is further reduced at more negative potentials by an overall addition of three electrons and four protons to the corresponding phenylhydroxylamine. In the presence of βCD the first reduction wave of bifenox becomes irreversible, it is shifted towards more positive potentials and the uptake of more than one electron is observed (up to four electrons during the exhaustive electrolysis). The first reduction wave of bifenox is not affected by the addition of glucose confirming that a simple availability of protons from the OH groups is not the main factor in further transformation of anion radical in the presence of βCD. The complex formation with βCD facilitates the protonation and additionally protects the molecule from disintegration into 2,4-dichlorophenol. A yield of 2,4-dichlorophenol decreases in the order βCD, γCD and αCD, respectively.

Keywords: Reductions; Electroreduction; Nitro anion radical; Diphenyl ether herbicide; Bifenox; Cyclodextrins; Pesticides; Electrochemistry; Polarography.

References: 42 live references.