Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 2007, 72, 1207-1213

Analysis of Nicotine in Antismoking Pharmaceutical Products by Differential Pulse Polarography and Voltammetry

Atle Hannisdala,*, Øyvind Mikkelsenb and Knut H. Schrøderb

a Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Medical Technology, Sør-Trøndelag University College, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway
b Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway


A fast and simple differential pulse polarographic method was developed for analysis of nicotine in various pharmaceutical formulations (chewing gum, tablets (drops) and patches). This method requires a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure for chewing gum and patches, or a direct dilution in supporting electrolyte for tablets before polarographic analysis. The polarographic analysis was done in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 6.2) as supporting electrolyte. The multimode electrode from Metrohm was used as working electrode (dropping mercury electrode). This method was applied to the determination of the nicotine content in chewing gum, tablets and patches by using the standard addition method. The results are in good agreement with the content declared by the manufacturer. The method is fast, simple and reliable, and it is a complementary method to the chromatographic method being used today for quantitative analysis of nicotine in pharmaceutical formulations. The limit of quantification is assumed to be far below 0.1 mg/l in the polarographic vessel. The method uses simple dilution and/or extraction procedures for sample preparation before polarographic analysis. It is also shown that it is possible to use a glassy carbon electrode with a mercury film (MTFE electrode) for the determination of nicotine in antismoking pharmaceutical products.

Keywords: Nicotine; Chewing gum; Patches; Tablets; Differential pulse polarography; Mercury film electrode; Electroanalysis; Electrochemistry.

References: 10 live references.