Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 2006, 71, 1557-1570

Kinetic Study of Hydrolysis of Benzoates. Part XXVI. Variation of the Substituent Effect with Solvent in Alkaline Hydrolysis of Substituted Alkyl Benzoates

Vilve Nummert, Mare Piirsalu and Ilmar A. Koppel*

Institute of Chemical Physics, Tartu University, Jakobi 2, 51014 Tartu, Estonia


The second-order rate constants k2 (dm3 mol-1 s-1) for the alkaline hydrolysis of substituted alkyl benzoates C6H5CO2R have been measured spectrophotometrically in aqueous 0.5 M Bu4NBr at 50 and 25 °C (R = CH3, CH2Cl, CH2CN, CH2C≡CH, CH2C6H5, CH2CH2Cl, CH2CH2OCH3, CH2CH3) and in aqueous 5.3 M NaClO4 at 25 °C (R = CH3, CH2Cl, CH2CN, CH2C≡CH). The dependence of the alkyl substituent effects on different solvent parameters was studied using the following equations:
    ∆ log k = c0 + c1σI + c2EsB + c3E + c4Y + c5P + c6EσI + c7YσI + c8PσI
    ∆ log k = c0 + c1σ* + c2EsB + c3E + c4Y + c5P + c6Eσ* + c7Yσ* + c8Pσ* .
∆ log k = log kR - log kCH3. σI and σ* are the Taft inductive and polar substituent constants. E, Y and P are the solvent electrophilicity, polarity and polarizability parameters, respectively. In the data treatment ∆E = ES - EH2O , ∆Y = YS - YH2O , ∆P = PS - PH2O were used. The solvent electrophilicity, E, was found to be the main factor responsible for changes in alkyl substituent effects with medium. When σI constants were used, variation of the polar term of alkyl substituents with the solvent electrophilicity E was found to be similar to that observed earlier for meta and para substituents, but twice less when σ* constants were used. The steric term for alkyl substituents was approximately independent of the solvent parameters.

Keywords: Esters; Alkyl benzoates; Alkaline hydrolysis; Substituent effects; Solvent effects; Kinetics.

References: 34 live references.