Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 2003, 68, 2355-2376

Theoretical Study of Solvent Effect on π-EDA Complexation I. SCF and DFT Calculations Within Polarized Continuum Model on TCNE-Benzene Complex

Ondrej Kyseľa,*, György Juhásza and Pavel Machb

a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, A. Hlinku Av. 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia
b Department of Biophysics and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, F1, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovakia


SCF, MP2, DFT(B3LYP) and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) were used to study geometry, charge distribution and energetics of the π-EDA complex formation between tetracyanoethene (TCNE) and benzene both in gas phase and in various polar solvents (cyclohexane, dichloromethane and water). MP2/6-31G*, MP2/6-31+G*, MP2/6-31G*(0.25) calculations have shown that geometry of the complex is planparallel with interplane distance of 3.05 × 10-10 m on the MP2/6-31G* level and the complexation energy is equal to -6.8 to -8.95 kcal/mol, while dominant contributions to the complexation energy come from intermolecular correlation and energy. The PCM continuum model of polar solvents describes well both the Gibbs energy of solvation of individual solutes and the difference between the complex and its constituents and also agrees with the experimental finding that the polar solvent effect decreases the complexation constant of the π-EDA complex formation by a factor of 2-4 when chloroform is replaced by more polar dichloromethane, and by a factor of 9, when tetrachlormethane is replaced by dichloromethane. It seems that the solvation Gibbs energy of the π-EDA complex formation always prefers stability of solvated constituents to that of the solvated complex. The electrostatic polarization Gibbs energy of solvation is responsible for the tendency of complexation constants to decrease with increasing solvent polarity; however, non-electrostatic terms contribute as well. While the enthalpy of complexation between benzene and TCNE in gas phase is about -10.0 kcal/mol due to the negative complexation entropy ∆(∆S) = -22.56 cal/mol K, the ∆G of complexation is -3.8 kcal/mol. The solvation part of the complexation Gibbs energy in dichloromethane is +5.14 kcal/mol (PCM-SCF/6-31G* calculation) so that complexation constant K = 0.1 dm3/mol in this solvent was found.

Keywords: EDA complexes; Charge-transfer complexes; Polarized continuum model (PCM); Solvent effects; Ab initio calculations; DFT; Weak molecular interactions.

References: 40 live references.