Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1995, 60, 1502-1528

Chemometric Analysis of Substituent Effects. VIII. Alternative Interpretation of Substituent Effects (AISE)

Oldřich Pytela

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic


Alternative interpretation of substituent effects (AISE) starts from the presumption that a substituent only possesses a single property described by a single substituent constant. This property is transmitted to the reaction centre by three different ways depending on the interaction type in the triad reaction centre - basic skeleton - substituent. For interpretation it is substantial whether or not the substituent has p electrons at the atom adjacent to the basic skeleton. If it has none, the substituent belongs to class I and operates only by its basic effect described by the mentioned single substituent constant. Substituents of class II possess a free electron pair at the atom adjacent to the basic skeleton, and those of class III have a multiple bond between the first and the second atoms which is polarized in the direction from the basic skeleton. Substituent effects in class I are described by a substituent constant identical with σI constant. Substituents in classes II and III show additional effects proportional to the same constant. Hence, a separate treatment of substituent effects in the individual classes provides three straight lines intersecting in a common point. Mathematically, the description of substituent effects in this approach is expressed by a family of lines with a single explaining variable. The point of intersection, which is referred to as the iso-effect point, is not identical with the classic standard substituent - hydrogen - but is near to CN substituent. The approach given has the advantage of adopting a single substituent constant whose scale can be adjusted relatively precisely. Its drawback (like in the case of the correlation equations derived from the principle of separation of substituent effects) lies in a more extensive set of substituents needed for a correlation. The AISE principle has been applied to 318 series of experimental data describing effects of 32 substituents in a large variety of chemical models (aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic, heteroaromatic, with or without direct conjugation between reaction centre and substituent) in both chemical reactions and equilibria. A comparison with two other correlation relations with two and three substituent constants for interpretation of substituent effects based on the principle of separation of the individual substituent effects showed that the closeness of AISE based correlations is comparable with that of the correlation equations currently used. It was somewhat less successful in the models with direct conjugation between reaction centre and substituent but the AISE principle can be used even in these cases.