Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1995, 60, 383-392

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies of Palladium Dispersed on Carbon Surfaces Modified by Ion Beams and Plasmatic Oxidation

Zdeněk Bastl

J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 182 23 Prague 8, Czech Republic


The effects of ion bombardment and r.f. plasma oxidation of graphite surfaces on subsequent growth and electronic properties of vacuum deposited palladium clusters have been investigated by methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy with X-ray excitation (XAES). Due to the significantly increased density of surface defects on which the nucleation process occurs the bulk value of the Pd 3d core level binding energy is achieved at higher surface coverage by palladium on bombarded surfaces than on ordered graphite. Angle resolved photoelectron spectra of oxidized graphite surfaces reveal significant embedding of oxygen in graphite surface layers. The C 1s and O 1s photoelectron spectra are consistent with presence of two major oxygen species involving C-O and C=O type linkages which are not homogeneously distributed within the graphite surface layers. Two effects were observed on oxidized surfaces: an increase of palladium dispersion and interaction of the metal clusters with surface oxygen groups. Using the simple interpretation of the modified Auger parameter the relaxation and chemical shift contributions to the measured Pd core level shifts are estimated. In the region of low surface coverage by palladium the effect of palladium-oxygen interaction on Pd core level binding energy exceeds the effects of increased dispersity.