Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1994, 59, 1637-1644

Chemometrical Analysis of Substituent Effects. IV. Additivity of Substituent Effects in Dissociation of 3,5-Disubstituted Benzoic Acids in Organic Solvents

Oldřich Pytela, Jiří Kulhánek and Miroslav Ludwig

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic


Ten 3,5-disubstituted benzoic acids have been synthesized containing all possible combinations of the following substituents: CH3O, CH3, Cl/Br, NO2. The dissociation constants of these acids have been measured in seven organic solvents (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, pyridine, 1,2-dichloroethane). It has been found that the effect of disubstitution is smaller than that due to interaction of substituents or their solvation and represents only about 0.2% of the effect caused by the individual substituents. The additivity in 3,5-disubstitution is about 2 - 3 times as good as that in 3,4-disubstitution. The quantitative description of substituent effects at the 3 and 5 positions is additive within the range of validity of the Hammett equation irrespective of the type of the substituent constants adopted, the addition of the multiplicative term being statistically insignificant. The solvent effect on 3,4- and 3,5-disubstituted derivatives is somewhat different at the same value of the reaction constant, due predominantly to the specific solvation of the 4-CH3O and 4-NO2 groups.