Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1990, 55, 180-184

Significance test of refractive index of solvent in evaluation of effect of medium on rates of quaternization reactions of methyl iodide with amines

Taťjana Nevěčná and Vojtěch Bekárek

Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Palacký University, 771 46 Olomouc


The rate constants have been measured of the reactions of methyl iodide with triethylamine (I) and tributylamine (III) at 293 K in twelve aprotic solvents, methyl iodide with tripropylamine (II) at 293, 313, 323, and 333 K in fifteen solvents differing greatly in their dipole moments, relative permittivities, and refractive indexes, and diiodomethane with tripropylamine in diiodomethane at 293 K (k1 = 2.1 10-5 s-1). The aprotic solvents predominantly affect the activation entropy which for the reaction of II varies from -200 J mol-1 s-1 (in cyclohexane) to -108 J mol-1 s-1 (in diiodomethane). The activation enthalpy of the reaction of methyl iodide with tripropylamine (II) is only little affected by aprotic solvents, a significant increase in activation enthalpy has been observed in the case of amphiprotic solvents. The evaluation of effect of medium on the rate constants of the above-mentioned reactions by means of the Kirkwood functions of relative permittivity and refractive index has shown a significant contribution of the refractive index of solvent which is comparable with the effect of relative permittivity.