Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1990, 55, 119-135

Further studies an the extended Hammett equation comprising the hydrophobic constant: Reactivity data for benzoic acids, arylacetic acids, β-arylpropionic acids, trans- and cis-cinnamic acids, methyl benzoates; dissociation constants, DDM reaction and alkaline hydrolysis in various water-organic solvent mixtures

Anthonius J. Hoefnagel and Bartholomeus M. Wepster

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands


The extended Hammett eguaition Δ = ρs + hπ comprising the hydrophobic constant π is found to be effective in the title compounds and reactivities in various solvent mixtures. In 32 vol.% tert-butanol-water hmdecreases in the order ArCOOMe (-0.25), cis-ArCH=CHCOOH (-0.18), ArCOOH and ArCH2COOH (-0.16), ArCH2CH2COOH and trans-ArCH=CHCOOH (-0.07). For ArCOOH, mixtures like 40-60% methanol, 50% ethanol, 50% acetone and 50% dioxane give similar hm values of circa -0.05. For ArCH2COOH the effects of 3-iodo and 4-iodo substituents are acid-weakening in 32% tert-butanol. The consequences of the hπ term for ρ, σ, and the averaging of σ values, are discussed.