Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1987, 52, 409-424

Polar effects on 13C NMR chemical shifts and rotational barriers of amides. A dual substituent parameters analysis of N,N-dimethyl-3-(5-substituted-2-furyl)-acrylamides

Zdeněk Friedla, Stanislav Böhmb, Igor Goljerc, Anna Piklerováa, Daniela Poórováa, Anna Ríčkováa and Jaroslav Kováča

a Department of Organic Chemistry, Slovak Institute of Technology, 812 37 Bratislava
b Department of Organic Chemistry, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague 6
c NMR Central Laboratory, Slovak Institute of Technology, 812 37 Bratislava


13C NMR chemical shifts were measured for sixteen N,N-dimethyl-3-(5-substituted-2-furyl)-acrylamides in CDCl3 at 21 °C; the barriers of rotation about the C-N bond ΔGc° were determined by using the 1H NMR coalescence method, and the positions of the IR bands of the ν(C=O) stretching vibrations were measured. The dual substituent parameters (DSP) analysis of the 13C NMR chemical shifts for atoms of the vinylcarboxamide side chain -C(3)H=C(2)H-C(1)=O(-N) gives evidence that the chemical shifts for the C-1 and C-3 atoms are controlled primarily by polar effects (δ(C-3) = -3.12σI - 1.03σR0; λ = ρIR = 3.0), which exert a reverse substituent effect on these atoms. Similarly, the DSP analysis of the ΔGc° and ν(C=O) data shows that the dominant factor of the total substituent effect is the polar effect (λ = 1.95 and 1.70, respectively). A confrontation of the results of the DSP analysis with the CNDO/2 calculated electron densities at the corresponding atoms demonstrates that the reactivity of the entire vinylcarboxamide side chain can be well explained in terms of a combination of the polar effect (π-electron polarization) with resonance effects.